Urology

Download The Kidney at a Glance by Christopher O'Callaghan PDF

By Christopher O'Callaghan

The Kidney at a look offers the data required through scientific scholars within the concise, effortless to profit layout of the At a look sequence. The commonplace double web page unfold structure of 1 web page of illustrations and one web page of textual content for every subject is used to provide the kidney and urinary tract, beginning with uncomplicated anatomy and body structure, and dealing as much as the pathologies and displays of renal and urinary tract disease.The complete diversity of themes comprises the tricky parts of water and salt homeostasis, acid-base stability in addition to the endocrine and secretory services of the kidney consisting of the renin-angiotensin procedure and erythropoietin construction. a different bankruptcy covers the molecular genetics of kidney illness, together with polycystic kidney affliction and different disorders.The publication covers all elements of simple technology correct to the kidney and should be of curiosity to scientific scholars following either conventional and built-in classes and scholars of nursing with an curiosity within the renal method. USMLE, MRCP and MRCS applicants will locate it an invaluable revision relief for those examinations.Key Features:*Provides a complete account of contemporary uncomplicated renal technology and medical nephrology.*'The first e-book of this sort to include the most recent molecular and physiological developments.*Clear and straightforward diagrams, images, explanatory figures and textual content current the topic in a brand new and straightforward to appreciate way.*Contains all scientific scholar or extra complicated trainee would have to understand at the topic, supplying them with an easy-to-grasp and scientifically rigorous realizing of kidney functionality and disease.*The publication is supported by means of an internet site for scholar studying at www.learndoctor.com This web site comprises self-assessment routines, key-point summaries, additional examining and updates on new advancements for every bankruptcy.

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Abbreviation: CDK, cyclin-dependent protein kinase. In mammalian cells, many peptide growth factors are potent inducers of cell division. These include plateletderived growth factor; epidermal growth factor (EGF); insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II; acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (a-FGF and b-FGF); transforming growth factor a (TGF-a), which binds to the EGF receptor); and transforming growth factor b (TGF-b), which is structurally unrelated to TGF-a and is generally inhibitory.

Type II RNA polymerase is responsible for synthesis of the other types of RNA. Both ends of mRNA are modified. The 50 end is ‘‘capped’’ by a methylated G nucleotide, whereas to the 30 end a polyadenylated (poly-A) tail is added. The 50 cap plays an important part in protein synthesis and protects the mRNA from degradation. The poly-A tail aids the export of mRNA, it may stabilize mRNA in the cytoplasm, and it serves a recognition signal for the ribosome. The primary RNA transcript from the gene is known as hnRNA, most of which is rapidly destroyed by removal and splicing of the remaining mRNA.

0). This in itself may be bactericidal or bacteriostatic. In addition, the acid milieu promotes the production of hydrogen perioxide. Lysosomes containing lysozyme (muramidase), a low–molecular weight cationic protein that attacks the mucopeptide cell walls of some bacteria. Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found within lysosomes that inhibits the growth of several microorganisms. Lysosomal cationic proteins and hydrolases. l l l Drugs, chemotherapeutic agents and toxins Bone marrow infiltration by large numbers of tumor cells Bone marrow fibrosis Qualitative defects, of which there are many, can be considered most conveniently in relation to the specific functions which are defective.

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