By Klaus Krippendorff
The second one variation of content material research: An advent to Its method is a definitive sourcebook of the background and center ideas of content material research in addition to a vital source for current and destiny stories. The booklet introduces readers to methods of studying significant topic akin to texts, photographs, voices – that's, facts whose actual manifestations are secondary to the meanings specific inhabitants of individuals brings to them. equipped into 3 components, the booklet examines the conceptual and methodological elements of content material research and in addition strains numerous paths via content material research protocols. the writer has thoroughly revised and up-to-date the second one version, integrating new details on computer-aided textual content research. The e-book additionally contains a useful advisor that comes with reports in educating and the way to recommend educational and advertisement researchers. furthermore, Krippendorff clarifies the epistemology and good judgment of content material research in addition to the equipment for attaining its goals. meant as a textbook for complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars around the social sciences, content material research, moment version can also be a priceless source for practitioners in quite a few disciplines.
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Additional info for Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology
The framework, which is depicted in Figure 2 . 1 , is simple and general, employing only a few conceptual components: • A body of text, the data that a content analyst has available to begin an analytical effort 29 30 .. CO N C E PTU A L I ZI N G CO N T E N T ANALYS I S • A research question that the analyst seeks to answer by examining the body of text • A context of the analyst's choice within which to make sense of the body of text • • • An analytical construct that operationalizes what the analyst knows about the context Inferences that are intended to answer the research question, which constitute the basic accomplishment of the content analysis Validating evidence, which is the ultimate analysis The Many Worlds of Others j ustification of the content Context as Conceived by Content Anal y sts Inferences - - - - - - - - - - ....
For example, Schnurr, Rosenberg, and Ozman (1992, 199 3 ) compared the Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943 ) with a computer content analysis of open-ended free speech and found the low agreement between the two to be discouraging. 's conclusion, however. Nacos et a!. (1991) compared humans' coding of political news coverage with data from Fan's (19 8 8 ) computer coded approach to the same coverage and found satisfactory correlations between the two. Nacos et al. came to the conclusion that content analysts can best use computers in their research by thinking of them as aids, not as replacements for the highly developed human capabilities of reading, transcribing, and translating written matter.
Once an analyst has chosen a context for a particular body of text and clearly understands that context, certain kinds of questions become answerable and others make no sense. Just as the analytical contexts that content analysts must adopt may vary from one analysis to another, these contexts may also differ from the interpretive schemes that unaided listeners, viewers, or readers employ in reading their sen sory data, the characters of their texts, and the messages they receive. The same body of texts can therefore yield very different findings when examined by dif ferent analysts and with reference to different groups of readers.