By marcel florkin
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Extra resources for Comparative Biochemistry. A Comprehensive Treatise
We may ex press this idea in the form dt Li\dt u ; dt ) 3 where dTji/dt denotes the number of elements entering state i from state / per unit time and dTij/dt denotes the number of elements leav ing state i for state / per unit time. That is the change in state i is just the number of particles entering from all other states minus the number leaving it for any other state. If the right side of the equation does not vanish, Ni is a function of time and we have a nonstationary state. If the right side vanishes, Ni is not a function of time.
An irreversible process is one in 2 . THERMODYNAMICS OF LIVING SYSTEMS 29 which it is impossible to restore all systems involved to their exact original states without adding energy from the outside. It is apparent, therefore, that all real processes are irreversible. However, one can imagine systems in which all restraints such as friction, for example, are infinitely small, and which permit with appropriate ingenuity a restoration of the systems concerned to the exact initial states. Such a hypothetical process is termed reversible and represents the limit of actual processes.
If the right side of the equation does not vanish, Ni is a function of time and we have a nonstationary state. If the right side vanishes, Ni is not a function of time. If this is true for every i, the system is in a steady state. If this is true for every value of i and /, then dTdT· dt dt W and the right side of the equation vanishes. But note that this is a much more restrictive imposition and corresponds to an equilibrium state. As an example consider a cell in which there are i components which may diffuse into or out of the cell.