By Ronald W. Langacker
This e-book fills a protracted status want for a easy advent to Cognitive Grammar that's present, authoritative, finished, and approachable. It provides a synthesis that attracts jointly and refines the descriptive and theoretical notions built during this framework over the process 3 many years. In a unified demeanour, it incorporates either the conceptual and the social-interactive foundation of linguistic constitution, in addition to the necessity for either sensible rationalization and specific structural description. beginning with the basics, crucial facets of the idea are systematically laid out with concrete illustrations and cautious dialogue in their cause. one of the themes surveyed are conceptual semantics, grammatical sessions, grammatical structures, the lexicon-grammar continuum characterised as assemblies of symbolic buildings (form-meaning pairings), and the usage-based account of productiveness, regulations, and well-formedness. The theory's relevant declare - that grammar is inherently significant - is thereby proven to be possible. The framework is additional elucidated via program to nominal constitution, clause constitution, and complicated sentences. those are tested in vast standpoint, with exemplification from English and various different languages. in keeping with the theory's common ideas, they're mentioned not just by way of their structural characterization, but in addition their conceptual worth and sensible motivation. different concerns explored contain discourse, the temporal size of language constitution, and what grammar finds approximately cognitive techniques and the development of our psychological world.
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Additional info for Cognitive Grammar: An Introduction (2008)
Given an array of similar semantic units, such as [ROSE], [DAISY], and [TULIP], provision (ii) sanctions a more schematic structure representing their abstract commonality, in this case [FLOWER]. While [FLOWER] is itself a lexical meaning, hence directly available under (i), we can readily imagine schemas that are not. It is plausible, for example, that from notions like [HORSE], [DONKEY], and [ZEBRA] many speakers extract a schematic conception, [HORSE-LIKE CREATURE], that they have no lexical means of expressing (equine being a learnèd form).
Extension. Being abstract and applicable to most any domain, these come closest to the apparent spirit of image schemas. 3. Some notions commonly cited as image schemas fall instead in my third class, conceptual archetypes. These are experientially grounded concepts so frequent and fundamental in our everyday life that the label archetype does not seem inappropriate. Here are some examples: a physical object, an object in a location, an object moving through space, the human body, the human face, a whole and its parts, a 34 PRELIMINARIES physical container and its contents, seeing something, holding something, handing something to someone, exerting force to effect a desired change, a face-to-face social encounter.
On the encyclopedic view, a lexical meaning is neither totally free nor totally ﬁxed. It is not totally free because the expression evokes a certain range of knowledge and speciﬁes a particular way of accessing it. It is not totally ﬁxed because centrality (preferential access) is a matter of degree and subject to being overridden by contextual factors. 2) is both linguistically and psychologically realistic. While it does have the consequence that no discrete boundary can be drawn between linguistic and extralinguistic knowledge, any such boundary ought to be drawn on empirical grounds, not imposed a priori.