By William C. Anderson P.E., DEE (auth.), William C. Anderson P.E., DEE (eds.)
This monograph on chemical therapy is considered one of a sequence of 8 on cutting edge web site and waste remediation applied sciences which are the end result of a multi association attempt related to greater than a hundred specialists over a 12 months interval. It offers the skilled, practising expert suggestions at the software of leading edge methods thought of prepared for full-scale software. different monographs during this sequence deal with bioremediation, soil washing/soil flushing, solvent chemical extraction, stabilization/ solidifica tion, thermal desorption, thermal destruction, and vacuum vapor extraction. 7. 7 Chemical therapy The time period chemical remedy, as utilized in this monograph, refers back to the use of reagents to smash or chemically regulate goal contaminants by means of capability except pyrolysis or combustion. The monograph addresses methods that chemically deal with infected soils, groundwaters, floor waters, and, to a restricted volume, focused contaminants. Chemical therapy is a method of changing damaging materials into much less environmentally ob jectionable types to be able to meet remedy ambitions. This monograph addresses substitution, oxidation, and chemical precipi tation approaches. It addresses procedures inside of those periods which are suffi ciently complicated for full-scale program. there are various rising applied sciences inside those sessions which are within the learn or an early devel opment level, now not but prepared for full-scale program, that seem to be very promising technologically. Six such applied sciences are in short addressed in Appendix A.
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Extra info for Chemical Treatment
2 Oxidation Processes Of the three classes of processes addressed here, oxidation processes actually destroy or mineralize the target organic contaminants. In doing so, however, they consume relatively large quantities of ozone and/or hydrogen peroxide. Advanced oxidation processes using ultraviolet light to form free radicals were developed to overcome this limitation. 10 Chapter2 processes are based on hydroxyl free radical chemistry, chemical interactions are highly nonspecific and nonselective.
Although ozone and hydrogen peroxide are both oxidizing agents, they are not completely interchangeable. The chemical pathways they follow in oxidizing organic compounds are somewhat different. This is especially true in the presence of UV light, as explained in the next subsection. An understanding of the fundamental chemistries involved is necessary to design an efficient treatability study, and in most cases the treatability studies should include consideration of ozone and peroxide both individually and in combination.
Lower Aroclors. g. 1016, 1242 and 1248, can also be transformed to non-PCBs, but generally require greater concentrations of reagent, higher temperatures, and/or longer reaction times. 15). The major components consist of a 380-L (100-gal) reactor, thermal fluid heater/chiller, a 1,900 L (500 gal) decantation tank, storage tanks of 1,900 L (500 gal) capacity, and pumps. Chemical Waste Management indicates that the system converts PCBs into substituted ethers with methoxyethoxy moieties at somewhat greater efficiency than does KPEG at 115°C (239°F).