By Franziska Bitschofsky (auth.), Andrej Ernst, Priska Schäfer, Joachim Scholz (eds.)
Bryozoa are a colonial animal phylum with an extended evolutionary background, having existed from the early Ordovician (480 My) onward and nonetheless flourishing this day. a number of mass extinctions in earth heritage formed and caused bryozoan evolution via drastic turnover of faunas and new evolutionary lineages. Bryozoa are frequent throughout all latitudes from Equator to Polar areas and happen in marine and freshwater environments. they're shaping benthic ecosystems and recording ambient environmental stipulations of their skeletons. The booklet presents a synthesis of the present major subject matters of study within the box of Bryozoology together with mixed examine on either extant, and extinct taxa. Fields or present learn span molecular genetics and phylogeny, lifestyles historical past, copy and anatomy, biodiversity and evolutionary styles in time and area, taxonomy, zoogeography, ecology, sediment interactions, and weather response.
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Extra resources for Bryozoan Studies 2010
Sequences by using DAMBE (Xia and Xie 2001); this alignment was 219 residues long (161 constant, 42 parsimony uninformative, 16 parsimony informative). We used four methods to reconstruct phylogeny: maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor-joining (NJ), and maximum likelihood (ML), as implemented in PAUP* (Swofford 2000), and Bayesian analysis (BA), as implemented in MrBayes (Ronquist and Huelsenbeck 2003). Plots of transitions and transversions against genetic distance, as implemented in DAMBE, showed that 3rd codon positions were highly saturated, so for the MP analyses we explored differential character weighting.
2007; C. , 2007; C. , 2007) (Fig. 1) allowed us to assess genetic distances between or within populations, and the correlation between genetic distance and morphological divergence. In each case, specimens that were initially identified morphologically to a particular species grouped together (Fig. 1) with high nodal support. For the three species that involved inter-population comparisons (C. multiavicularia, C. multispinosus, C. 1) and the overall appearance of unbleached and bleached specimens (Figs.
Las Vegas, pp 435–438 Cuffey RJ, Taylor JF (1989) Altoona bryozoan-coral-stromatoporoid reef, Uppermost Silurian, Pennsylvania. Can Soc Petrol Geol Mem 13:296–298 Cuffey RJ, Zhu Z (2010) Yichang (central China) – the oldest-known bryozoan reefs (mid-Early Ordovician), and comparison with the next-oldest (Garden Island, New York/Vermont, early Middle Ordovician). Geol Soc Am Abstr Program 42(1):64 Cuffey RJ, Gebelein CD, Fonda SS, Bliefnick DM, Kosich DF, Soroka LG (1977) Modern tidalchannel bryozoan reefs at Joulters Cays (Bahamas).