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By John R. Davis

Between 1848 and 1866 the Zollverein went via a sequence of momentous crises and the problem of industrial association turned more and more politicized. Austro-Prussian contention, industrialization, and liberalism, created a annoying surroundings during which Britain had huge, immense impact. utilizing a variety of German and British resources this examine exhibits how Britain, blindfolded by means of doctrinaire loose exchange and institutional inadequacy, didn't snatch the connotations of its personal activities within the German states and the way misinterpretation started to bitter Anglo-German relations.

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The desire to see a more systematic supply of information lay behind Lord Clarendon's introduction of regular reports in 1857. 80 Nevertheless, it would take more assertive Board of Trade presidents such as Joseph Chamberlain for Loftus's suggestions to be accepted, and a journal was founded in 1886. His ideas were simply ahead of their time. 81 The statistics gathered by the consular service were, therefore, misleading, inadequate and uncoordinated, and it was possible that they were encouraging in Britain a false sense of security regarding commercial affairs in the Zollverein.

He was an unusual candidate for a consular job; he was by profession a journalist, and perhaps therefore deemed capable of circumventing the norms of the British system of representation. Certainly it was for his powers of observation that his dispatches were Free Trade and the Zollverein 31 and are distinguished. Crowe was not of the aristocracy, and was able to move more freely in society. 102 Though under-researched, 103 Lord John Russell's appointment of Crowe also perhaps represented help 'from the hands of our political friends', 104 this time in order to report on the Hesse-Kassel constitutional dispute.

Another dynamic which influenced British textile exports throughout the mid-century was the gradual fall in cotton prices. 5 per cent of its price in 1819-21, while for thread the figure was 41 per cent. 164 The reduction of value for cotton articles meant that the remuneration for the same amount of British goods became less. 7 per cent. 165 The extent of these changes might lead one to expect some sort of official reaction by the British government. Yet for several reasons the threat to. British trade interests did not cause any great worry.

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