By Jamie A. Davies MA (Cantab.), Ph.D. (auth.)
Branching morphogenesis, the production of branched constructions within the physique, is a key characteristic of animal and plant improvement. This publication brings jointly, for the 1st time, professional researchers engaged on a number of branching platforms to give a state of the art view of the mechanisms that keep an eye on branching morphogenesis. platforms thought of variety from unmarried cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct platforms to complete physique plans, and ways diversity from remark via scan to unique biophysical modelling. the result's an built-in review of branching.
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Extra info for Branching Morphogenesis
The functional significance of such striking gonadal hormone-mediated control of dendritic morphology in CAl hippocampal neurons remains largely unclear, however. Given the role of the CAl neuronal population in memory storage, it is possible that these structural changes may critically link reproductive processes with learning and memory. ^ ^^^^ For example, chronic or acute Cortisol administration during a critical developmental period reduces dendrite numbers and limits dendritic arborization for stellate neurons in the embryonic chick telencephalon.
This redundancy in molecular control of branching morphogenesis suggests that cell context may critically determine downstream cytoskeletal changes, owing to developmental shifts in the complement of specific protein kinases expressed, the availability of second messengers, and background gene expression. 2'^^'^^^'^^2'5^^'552,534 As such, a variety of extracellular molecules can induce specific immediate-early genes, such as C'fos and c-jun^ and subsequendy upregulate late-response genes, together orchestrating the differential protein expression required for structural and fimctional changes underlying branching morphogenesis.
Typically, segment lengths are greater in axons than dendrites, and greater between secondary branches than tertiary or higher order branches, although tremendous variation is evident within the developing nervous system. '''80 An additional morphometric parameter that describes changes in neurite structure through successive branching is the taper, which is characterized as positive when the cross-sectional area increases between segments, and negative when the cross-sectional area decreases between branch points.