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But, like fuzzy position, momentum before the observation is intrinsically uncertain. This is what is know as the uncertainty principle, that certain quantities, such as position, energy and time, are unknown, except by probabilities. html (5 of 7) [15-02-2002 22:34:48] wave-particle duality, uncertainity principle impossible. For example, you can measure the location of an electron, but not its momentum (energy) at the same time. Mathematically we describe the uncertainty principle as the following, where `x' is position and `p' is momentum: This is perhaps the most famous equation next to E=mc2 in physics.

Nothing escapes change of some sort (it is impossible to step into the same river). On the other hand, Parmenides argued that everything is what it is, so that it cannot become what is not (change is impossible because a substance would have to transition through nothing to become something else, which is a logical contradiction). Thus, change is incompatible with being so that only the permanent aspects of the Universe could be considered real. C. by Democritus. He hypothesized that all matter is composed of tiny indestructible units, called atoms.

Html (7 of 9) [15-02-2002 22:34:32] Atomic Theory His results can best explained by a model for the atom as a tiny, dense, positively charged core called a nucleus, in which nearly all the mass is concentrated, around which the light, negative constituents, called electrons, circulate at some distance, much like planets revolving around the Sun. The Rutherford atomic model has been alternatively called the nuclear atom, or the planetary model of the atom. html (9 of 9) [15-02-2002 22:34:32] entropy Entropy: Cars rust, dead trees decay, buildings collapse; all these things are examples of entropy in action, the spontaneous and continuous movement from order to disorder.

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