By Neil C. Rowe
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Additional resources for Artificial Intelligence Through Prolog
Most artificial-intelligence programs and systems do provide additional help for understanding complex program activities in the form of explanation facilities that summarize and answer questions about reasoning activity. ". 8. html Prolog database Prolog interpreter query success failure variable binding variables first-order logic inputs outputs match matching alternatives database order conjunction match disjunction negation not built-in predicates closed-world assumption consult backtracking failure indexing generate-and-test Exercises 3-1.
S(b,d). s(c,d). s(c,c). s(d,e). (a) Without using a computer, what is the first answer found to the query? Hint: you don't have to do it Prolog's way. (b) Without using a computer, how many times does a Prolog interpreter backtrack from the third to the second predicate expression to get this first answer? 3-10. Consider this Prolog database: u(a,b). u(b,b). u(c,d). u(c,a). u(d,a). u(d,c). - u(X,Y), u(Y,Z), not(u(X,Z)). (a) How many times will a Prolog interpreter backtrack to the first query predicate expression u(X,Y) to find the first answer to this query?
It takes the first predicate expression in the query, and matches X to enterprise, and Y to u_s_navy. It stores the information that it has chosen the first fact to match the first expression. 2. - has(u_s_navy,civil_service_system). That is, it "substitutes" in the value bound to variable Y. But the subquery fails since there's no such fact. 3. So it must backtrack, or return to the first predicate expression in the query. From its stored information, it knows it chose the first part_of fact last time, so now it tries the second, binding X to kennedy and Y to u_s_navy.