By Karen S. Gibb, John W. Randles (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)
This sequence explores how vectors (carriers of illness brokers, comparable to bugs) gather, hold and hence transmit pathogens to hosts. It covers the spectrum of vectors, together with companies of plant pathogens in addition to medically similar pathogens. The Chapters in quantity 7 comprise: 1. K. Gibb, J.W. Randles: Transmission of velvet tobacco mottle virus and similar viruses through the mirid Cyrto- peltis nicotianae. 2. N. Carter, R. Harrington: components influencing aphid inhabitants dynamics and behaviour and the results for virus unfold. three. R.H. Bagnall: Cyclic epidemics of aphid-borne potato viruses in Northern seed-potato-growing parts. four. C.J. Andrews, R.C. Sinha: Interactions among barley yellow dwarf virus an infection and winter-stress tolerance in cereals. five. J.R. DeLoach, G. Spates: man made diets for blood feeding bugs: a evaluation. 6. I. Maudlin: Transmission of African trypanosomiasis: interactions between Tsetse immune approach, symbionts, and parasites. 7. C. Chastel, I. Humphery-Smith: Mosquito spiroplasmas. the 1st 4 chapters hide subject matters in plant virus transmission through bugs. the ultimate 3 chapters concentrate on human and animal affliction institutions with bollid-feeding flies.
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Carter and R. 5 80 .. 10 :I :> .. 882 Y 40 y=y .. 3. The relationship between predicted (Y) and actual (Y) incidence of nonpersistent viruses in peppers (%) in Canada, based on daily day-degrees plus sunshine hours in April, 1970-1977. (From Ref. ) of a particular species produce alatae later than do anholocyclic clones of the same species, adverse weather conditions are less likely to occur during the critical flight period. No work has been done that relates virus incidence to the timing of spring flight in isolation from the effects of the various stimuli on population development.
1'" .... t>'t .. I> .. ~ ...... 1> 1>"1. 4 I> 1> .. 1>----10oC ¢--20·C 0-30·C .. 6. The relationship between latent period of pea enation mosaic virus and temperature for Acyrthosiphon pisum nymphs. (From Ref. ) FIGURE 34 N. Carter and R. Harrington pisum does not always retain PEMV for life (108). 3 days at 30°C. The retention periods are slightly longer in alatae. Semipersistent viruses are retained usually for longer than nonpersistent ones, but neither survive a vector molt. The semipersistent SYV is retained in Chaetosiphon fragaefolii for 3 to 4 days longer at 4SC that at 21°C, but no details are given of the actual periods nor how they relate to time of molts (78).
These results suggest that sap accumulates in the gut during feeding and that VTMo V trans locates from the gut to the hemolymph. Very low levels of virus were detected in the hemolymph and, therefore, it is likely that the virus detected in the whole mirid assays was actually from the infective sap in the gut. Because the presence of virus in the gut or hemolymph did not guarantee transmission, it is not surprising that more mirids contained virus as detected by ELISA than could transmit. Nevertheless, a mechanism does exist that allows nonsuccessive transmission for up to 10 days after acquisition, and we have shown that virus can remain in the gut for this period, possibly to supply virus to a putative transmission pathway (10).