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By J. J. Kipling

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11. M. R. A. Rao, /. Indian Chem. Soc, 1935, 12, 345. 12. G. E. Bayle and A. Klinkenberg, Ree. Trav. , 1957, 76, 593. 13. J. J. Kipling and D. A. Tester, /. Chem. , 1952, 4123. 14. J. J. Kipling, Quart. , 1951, 5, 60. 15. G. A. H. Elton, /. Chem. Soc, 1951, 2958. 16. J. H. Hildebrand and R. L. Scott, "Solubility of Non-Electrolytes", Reinhold, New York, 1950, 3rd edition. 17. W. Ostwald and R. , 1922, 30, 279. CHAPTER 4 Adsorption from Completely Miscible Liquids Nearly all of the investigations on this type of system have been made with binary mixtures, and the treatment in this section refers to such mixtures.

Aceticjïc'd — - - " Concentration of acetic acid in liquid phase FIG. 1. Individual isotherms for adsorption by charcoal from mixtures of acetic acid and water. ) In later investigations, the method has been used much more successfully, especially in the adsorption by charcoal from binary mixtures, 6-9 including some aqueous mixtures. 10 The rate at which equilibrium is established depends mainly on the vapour pressures of the two components. It is quite rapid if the individual components have saturated vapour pressures of over 40 mm.

G. low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen) shows whether it is reasonable to assume that the adsorbed phase is confined to a single molecular layer. g. from adsorption data for the single vapours). The conditions envisaged by Schay and Nagy seem at first unlikely to be fulfilled exactly in very many cases, as can be seen from thermodynamic considerations. 28) and = (ß\)° + RTln(flx\), where μγ and {μλ)° are the chemical potentials of component 1 in a given mixture and in the standard state, respectively, / i being the activity coeffi­ cient; the superscript 1 refers to the bulk liquid.

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