By Dan O'Hair, Hannah Rubenstein, Rob Stewart
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Extra resources for A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking
Make speciﬁc rather than global statements. Rather than statements such as, “I just couldn’t get into your topic,” give the speaker something he or she can learn from: “I wanted more on why the housing market is falling . ” Part 2 Development 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Analyzing the Audience 37 Selecting a Topic and Purpose 49 Developing Supporting Material 57 Locating Supporting Material 64 Doing Effective Internet Research 73 Citing Sources in Your Speech 83 6 Analyzing the Audience Advertisers are shrewd analysts of people’s needs and wants, extensively researching their buying habits to identify what motivates them.
Evaluate Evidence and Reasoning As you listen to speeches, use your critical faculties to do the following: • Evaluate the speaker’s evidence. Is it accurate? Are the sources credible? • Analyze the speaker’s assumptions and biases. What lies behind the speaker’s assertions? Does the evidence support or contradict these assertions? • Assess the speaker’s reasoning. Does it betray faulty logic? Does it rely on fallacies in reasoning? ) • Consider multiple perspectives. Is there another way to view the argument?
Use Stress-Control Breathing When you feel stressed, the center of your breathing tends to move from the abdomen to the upper chest, leaving you with a reduced supply of air. The chest and shoulders rise, and you 3 • Managing Speech Anxiety 21 feel out of breath. With stress-control breathing,11 you will feel more movement in the stomach than in the chest. Try stresscontrol breathing in two stages. Inhale air and let your abdomen go out. Exhale air and let your abdomen go in. Do this for a while until you get into the rhythm of it.